American Sanctions Against The Soviet Union From Nixon To Reagan
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It was the first in a series of defeats that by June turned the tide of the imperial conflict irrevocably against Russia. In February , Located at the confluence of the Darro and Genil rivers in southern Spain, the city of Granada was a Moorish fortress that rose to These actions sent a message that the age of On this day in , media outlets report that a rare unrestored Bugatti Type 57S Atalante Coupe has been found in the garage of a British doctor.
The black two-seater, one of just 17 57S On this day in , President Richard M. Nixon signs the Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act, setting a new national maximum speed limit. Prior to , individual states set speed limits within their boundaries and highway speed limits across the country ranged from The year-old writer had gained international fame with the publication The Weavers, one of the most significant popular-music groups of the postwar era, saw their career nearly destroyed during the Red Scare of the early s.
Even with anti-communist fervor in decline by the early s, the Weavers' leftist politics were used against them as late After signing a three-year contract at a The so-called Yorkshire Ripper is finally caught by British police, ending one of the largest manhunts in history. For five years, investigators had pursued every lead in an effort to stop the serial killer who terrorized Northern England, but the end came out of pure This Day In History.
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US Government. Sign Up. That drastic step was electing Richard Nixon president. While Kalugin thought Nixon "unpredictable," he also believed that Nixon's long-time anti-communism might be the needed catalyst "to improve relations between our countries, for no one would ever dare accuse Nixon of being soft on communism. They established a back-channel to the Nixon campaign, using HarvardUniversity professor Henry Kissinger as an intermediary. Through a series of letters addressed to Kissinger, Nixon was informed that Brezhnev and the KGB would welcome his election.
But Kalugin did not speak for a unified Soviet leadership. The Soviet ambassador to the United States, Anatoly Dobrynin, already had done some politicking on his own. Believing that Hubert Humphrey would never initiate World War III and fearing Nixon was too staunch an anti-communist and a scoundrel besides , Dobrynin told Humphrey that the decision-makers in the Politburo looked favorably upon him and he offered to help the cash-starved Democratic campaign.
Humphrey refused, saying it was "more than enough for him to have Moscow's good wishes. Note 3 " After the ballots were counted and Nixon finished a hair's breadth ahead of Humphrey, the Kremlin sent a secret missive via Kissinger congratulating Nixon. Remembering the pro-Humphrey views of the Soviet ambassador, the KGB never told him about the letter.
Days later an "official" communique from the Soviet embassy offered Moscow's best wishes to the president-elect. Note 4.
Cold War International History Conference: Paper by John White
The point of this story is not to argue that these behind-the-scene actions affected the outcome of the contest. The Vietnam War and public disillusionment with Lyndon Johnson took care of that. Rather, it is to assert that with the end of the Cold War the scales have been removed from our eyes. Since the fall of the Soviet Union in , we have been learning much about what transpired on both sides of the Iron Curtain.
For example, a recent search of the Soviet archives produced a plea from U. Communist Party chief Gus Hall to Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev: "I don't like to raise the question of finances, but when the wolf' is at the door, one is forced to cry out. Meanwhile, on the other side of the globe, Americans learned in that thousands of their fellow citizens had been treated as human guinea pigs during the Cold War by their own government.
Milton Stadt, the son of one of these unwitting subjects, described how his mother had been hospitalized for a duodenal ulcer and found herself in a U. She was injected with plutonium on March 9, She was forty-one years old, and I was eleven years old at the time. My mother and father were never told or asked for any kind of consent to have this done to them. Note 6 " Jan Stadt subsequently died from the "non-therapeutic" radiation experiments performed upon her.
Every summer, when I heard [sic] heat lightning over the city and the sky would light up, I was convinced that it was all over. My whole childhood was built on the notion the Soviets were the real threat. Note 7 " Like John Driscoll, I, too, am a baby-boomer. Note 8 " Like so many of my generation, I accepted the Cold War as a fact of life. But the collapse of the Berlin Wall in November and the cascade of events that resulted in the demise of the Soviet Union two years later caught nearly everyone unawares.
For example, a June poll found two-thirds disagreed with the proposition that "communism is dying out. Note 9 " But Soviet-style communism did die--except in China, Cuba, Vietnam, and North Korea--and with it expired the political order and public attitudes that were profoundly influenced and shaped by the Cold War. In , Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. Note 10 " Although Schlesinger believed that the external communist threat was real, he believed that its real danger was the fear it engendered in the minds of most Americans.
Schlesinger proved prescient, as and the resultant politics of fear prompted many to contrast their own ideological thinking with communism. As Richard Nixon once observed, "People respond more to fear than love. They don't teach you that in Sunday school, but it's true. Fear is a powerful political weapon, especially in such a highly ideological nation as the United States. Political Scientist Louis Hartz once hypothesized that Americans were so ideologically straight-jacketed that a philosophy that did not espouse individualism, equality of opportunity, and freedom would be seen as alien.
Note 12 Alexis de Tocqueville held a similar view, writing in Democracy in America : "I know of no country in which there is so little independence of mind and real freedom of discussion as in America.
As the decades passed and with no end of the Cold War in sight, communism became the antithesis to the American creed. In , the World Book Encyclopedia drew a bright line between communism and American-style democracy: "In a democratic country, the government rules by consent of the people. In a communist country, the dictator rules by force and stays in power by force. A democratic government tries to act in a way that will benefit the people. Under communism, the interests of the government always come first.
Communism violently opposes democracy and the democratic way of life. According to a survey, 92 percent said that in a communist country "you only hear news the government wants you to hear"; 91 percent agreed that "if you speak your mind, you risk going to jail"; 84 percent rejected the notion that life for the average communist "is pretty much the same as in the United States"; 80 percent said "you can't move or relocate without permission from the government"; 75 percent maintained that "you always have to be afraid of the police"; 75 percent agreed that "you can't pick your own job or change jobs"; 69 percent believed "there is no freedom of religion"; 65 percent disagreed that "there's less stress and tension" for the "average" communist; 61 percent said "you can't get a fair trial"; 60 percent rejected the idea that "men and women are treated equally.
Note Given the preceding discussion, it is no surprise that American hostility toward communism was an enduring feature of the Cold War. Public opinion polling from the s until the Soviet Union collapsed in documents the public antipathy toward communism, even as the Cold War alternatively waxed hot and cold.
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Note 18 Founded in , the Roper Center holds the world's largest archive of survey data. Polling organizations, both public and private, regularly contribute to the Center's archive. These and other polls have been integrated into POLL, an online source for public opinion information.
Containing more than , questions asked in the United States from to the present, POLL offers complete question-wordings and full survey-level citation, such as the organizations conducting and sponsoring the work, interview dates, and sample sizes. Access to questions can be obtained by key subject areas or by using key words and phrases.
In , POLL integrated a new cross-tab dimension to the existing system. Today more than 40, questions from selected surveys conducted since are available with complete major subgroup breakdowns e.
U.S. Relations With China
For Still Seeing Red, I wanted to see all questions that pertained to "communism" or "communist s ", "Russia", "Russian," "Soviet," or "Soviet Union," and "communism and Russia"or various combinations of the words cited above. The number of questions by decade is reflected in Table 1. Table 2 is a sampling of some of the earliest soundings of American anti-communism from As these results suggest, polltakers quickly found a unanimity of opinion about communism: it was bad--so bad that sometimes Americans were willing to sacrifice sacred principles in order to retain ideological solidarity against an "unseen"enemy at home.
The public hatred of anything that smacked of being labeled communist persisted during the s. When the Korean War erupted in , Americans were so hostile toward communism that they were willing to put their fellow citizens who might belong to the U. Communist party into interment camps if necessary. As Table 3 shows, a mere one percent stood firm by the Bill of Rights guaranteed under the Constitution.
Put them in internment camps Source: Gallup poll, July August 4, Text of question: "What do you think should be done about members of the Communist Party in the United States in the event we get into a war with Russia? Even as late as the s when Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev proclaimed a new era of glasnost, Americans applauded even as they continued to blame communism for many of their country's problems.
A Gallup poll found 52 percent held the communists responsible "for a lot of the unrest in the United States today. Communist Party was never evidenced in massive numbers of proletarians rising in protest against capitalists. Rather, the fear of communism was mostly in our collective consciousness. The Gallup polling data illustrates the consistency of public thinking on the subject of communism and provides an interesting case study. Gallup is selected because it is one of the oldest public opinion research firms in the United States.
The first question Gallup asked on the subject was on April 4, "Should schools teach the facts about communism and socialism? Note 20 During the s, many of the questions asked about communism had to do with the Dies Committee a precursor to the House Committee on Un-American Activities. In , 83 percent had heard or read about the Dies Committee.
Note 21 Of these, 52 percent thought it was more important for the committee to investigate communist activities in this country; only 25 percent wanted it to investigate Nazi activities in the U. In the s, questions about communism in the Gallup polls revolved around the following issues:. A sampling of public opinion in each of these six areas reveals a remarkable degree of consistency. For example, two-thirds of Americans opposed allowing communists equal time on the radio.
A typical result was obtained to this September question: "Should Communist party candidates be allowed the same amount of free time on the radio as the Democratic and Republican candidates?
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Note 23 A July poll found 69 percent opposed to any member of the U. Communist Party, or anyone professing to be a communist, holding a civil service job. Note 24 A March survey found 87 percent stating that all communists should be immediately removed from industries that would be vital to any wartime effort.
Note 25 Americans applied a similar standard to the academic community. A July poll asked the following: "The University of California recently said it would require all its teachers to take an oath that they are not communists.